Seasonings are called yangnyeom (양념) in Korean, and every Korean cook uses his/her own combination and ratio of these pantry staples to season and flavor a dish. If you have these ingredients, you can make so many delicious Korean dishes. The last three items on this list are mostly for making kimchi.
Some items on this list are entirely unique to Korean cuisine. They are the three primary fermented sauce and pastes, collectively called jang (장) — ganjang (간장), doenjang (된장), gochujang (고추장). There simply are no substitutes for them if you want to create authentic flavors.